Echocardiography - Normal components of Hepatic Waveform


Transthoracic echo hepatic Doppler

Normal Hepatic Waveform has five components. This pattern comes by applying pulsed wave doppler at hepatic veins from a standard subcostal view of transthoracic echocardiogram. Important waves among these are Atrial systole, Ventricular Systole and Atrial Diastole. Abnormally high amplitude of 'a' and 'c' waves are seen in tricuspid regurgitation and congestive heart failure.